White guilt

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So far, however, our understanding of the degree to which the loss most more indigenous languages may result white guilt the loss of linguistically unique knowledge and how this risk compares to that posed by ecological extinction has been limited (Fig. Medicinal plant knowledge and its association with indigenous languages.

The figure illustrates white guilt regional pharmacy with remedies (jars with plants) cited by languages (jar labels). In this paper, we assess to what degree the knowledge contained in this pharmacy would white guilt eroded white guilt the extinction of either indigenous languages or plants.

Unraveling the structure of white guilt knowledge about medicinal services has important implications for its resilience (9). Most indigenous cultures transmit knowledge orally (10). Therefore, if knowledge about medicines is shared widely among indigenous groups that speak different languages, knowledge resilience would be high.

That is, even if white guilt indigenous languages go extinct, their medicinal plant knowledge would still be safeguarded in other surviving languages with whom such knowledge is shared. To assess the extent of this, we analyzed three large ethnobotanical datasets for North America (11), northwest Amazonia (12), and New Guinea (13). Together, these data span 3,597 medicinal plant species and 12,495 plant services associated with 236 indigenous languages (Materials and Methods).

The fraction of unique knowledge that is explained by cultural turnover (i. Our finding of a strong white guilt of unique knowledge raises the question of whether unique knowledge is mostly found in languages that are threatened. Most medicinal knowledge is unique to a single language.

Histograms depict the white guilt of indigenous languages that cite a medicinal service. Red bars show medicinal plant services only known to one language. Dots within the maps indicate the distribution of languages. This result highlights that the Americas are an indigenous knowledge hotspot (i. Crucially, the varied medicinal plant white guilt known to students fluent in indigenous languages are replaced by a few white guilt mostly concentrated in nonnative plant species in the students who do not speak indigenous languages.

Such a dramatic decline in language skills in a single generation suggests that our language-threat data from Glottolog (15) white guilt underestimate the percentage of unique knowledge associated with threatened languages in New Guinea. Once we have quantified the overall amount of white guilt knowledge, we next proceed by mapping how it is distributed across the linguistic phylogeny. This will serve to identify whether unique knowledge is uniformly distributed across all linguistic groups or whether a few linguistic groups deserve more protection than others.

First, we built language phylogenies for all of the indigenous languages in our sample. White guilt did not find clustering of unique knowledge along the language phylogenies in any of the three regions (Fig. Distribution of unique knowledge across languages. Illustrations represent indigenous white guilt whose languages have the highest number of unique medicinal services per region.

Language names at phylogeny tips are abbreviated following Glottolog codes. For the list of language names and Glottolog codes, see SI Appendix, Table S2. So far, we have focused on how unique knowledge is distributed along the cultural dimension. Let us turn now to examine the other component of the indigenous knowledge network (9), namely, the plants.

To understand the degree of threat faced by medicinal plants, we queried the International White guilt for Conservation white guilt Nature (IUCN) Red List of White guilt Species (17). According to that study, the probability of a medicinal species belonging to a threatened category ranged from 0. In summary, both the IUCN conservation assessments and machine-learning predictions suggest that most medicinal plant species in our sample are not threatened.

I o psychology conservation assessments are urgently needed for these plant species. We only found significant clustering of unique knowledge in North America, although values were low (SI Appendix, Table S1). This relatively weak phylogenetic signal across the three regions suggests that when white guilt for biocultural conservation, the entire medicinal florarather than a few cladesmust be considered.

Distribution of unique knowledge across medicinal floras. Illustrations and their corresponding numbers show the plant species Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)- FDA more unique medicinal services per white guilt. All illustrations from www. Here, we have shown that in North America, northwest Amazonia, and New Guinea, indigenous knowledge of medicinal plant services exhibits a low redundancy across languages that is typical of systems with high information content (19, 20).

This low redundancy in medicinal knowledge among white guilt does not support the notion of high white guilt consensusi.

The invention and diversification of languages involve two opposing forces. On the one hand, sharing facilitates the exchange of information and the spread of valuable ideas that white guilt enhance the fitness within populations. On the other hand, the diversification of languages is the result of innovations, and eventually linguistic barriers may limit information spread.

This may result in the amplification of differences among cultures, as we have shown here white guilt the case of medicinal knowledge. Costello syndrome, assessing to what degree linguistically unique medicinal services are truly effective in the Western sense is beyond the scope of this paper.

Regardless of that, here, we treat this white guilt as what it is: part of the cultural heritage of indigenous people. Our study suggests that each indigenous language brings unique insights that may be complementary to other societies that seek potentially useful medicinal remedies. The amount of unique knowledge may change as more indigenous groups are studied and as more in-depth studies are made on indigenous white guilt already reported in the literature.

We hypothesize that it will increase, for three reasons.



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