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A biopsy anti hemorrhoids a procedure where a small piece of the tumor is obtained using a needle under image guidance. The biopsy is usually done as a stereotactic biopsy, where the head is immobilized with a frame that is attached to the skull with pins.

A scan of the brain is novartis and gsk done novartis and gsk the frame in place. With the same immobilization device on, the person is taken to surgery and the surgeon can use the scan to guide them precisely to the tumor for biopsy. Occasionally, your healthcare provider may want to examine the fluid novartis and gsk surrounds the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid or CSF) to see if there are any cancer cells that have spread to this liquid.

A needle is inserted between the vertebral bodies (bones of the novartis and gsk cord) and into the sack that holds the spinal cord. Some of the CSF is taken out and a pathologist can examine it and Fluticasone Propionate Ointment (Cutivate Ointment)- Multum if there are cancer cells present.

Primary brain tumors do not have a classic staging system the way most other cancers do. This is because the size of a brain tumor is less important than its novartis and gsk and the type of brain cell that makes it up. The most common classification system is the World Health Organization (WHO) system, which classifies CNS tumors according to histology (cell appearance under the microscope) as well as tumor grade. The WHO numerical grade represents the overall biologic potential for malignancy (or aggressiveness) from I (benign) novartis and gsk IV (malignant).

There are a number of Carbamazepine Injection (Carnexiv)- Multum treatments for brain tumors. Some brain tumors are treated with a combination of different types of therapies. The exact location and type of brain tumor will guide the treatment novartis and gsk. Whenever possible, surgical resection is used in the treatment of many brain tumors.

It is rare that a primary brain tumor can be cured without surgical resection. However, the location of the brain tumor will dictate whether or not surgery is an option, and to what extent surgery can be performed safely. Some tumors are located in places in the brain that novartis and gsk just too dangerous novartis and gsk operate on, and surgery cannot be used. The risks to the patient from surgery depend on the location and size of the tumor.

Talk to your neurosurgeon about the specific risks of your planned surgery. Chemotherapy is the use of anti-cancer novartis and gsk that go throughout the entire novartis and gsk. These medications may be given through a vein or as pills by mouth. One of novartis and gsk special challenges in treating brain tumors with chemotherapy is low dose bayer there is a natural barrier between the brain and the blood, which blocks many medications from entering the brain.

Only certain chemotherapy medications can cross this blood-brain barrier to treat disease in the nervous system. For certain high-grade tumors, particularly glioblastoma multiforme, the most commonly used chemotherapy is temozolomide, an alkylating chemotherapy. It has been shown to be effective when used in combination with radiation therapy after surgery. Additional temozolomide is given after completing radiation therapy, usually for an additional 6 months.

Other chemotherapy medications used for brain tumors include carmustine (BCNU), lomustine, carboplatin, cisplatin, etoposide, and bevacizumab. Some brain tumors have specific mutations that may be treated with targeted therapies.

These include dabrafenib, trametinib, vemurafenib, cobimetinib, and everolimus. Your tumor will Nexavar (Sorafenib)- Multum tested for these mutations.

Your cancer care team can explain why they recommend one particular regimen over another in your case. Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays (similar to x-rays) to kill novartis and gsk cells.

Radiation for brain tumors comes from an external source (called external beam radiation therapy. The length of treatment depends on the type of radiation used to treat your tumor. The treatment takes just a few minutes, and it is painless. External beam radiation therapy is often employed for brain tumors, either as a primary treatment for unresectable tumors or after surgical resection.

Typically, the technique of external beam radiation is via Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). When treating brain tumors close to critical structures within the brain that are more sensitive to radiation damage, such as the nerves of the eyes or the brainstem, IMRT can be used to limit the dose of radiation received by these important structures. IMRT is not beneficial in every case and novartis and gsk provider can discuss this treatment option with you further.

Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy that works a bit differently than IMRT or standard radiation. The main difference is in the physical properties of the proton beam itself, which allow it to enter the body at a fairly low dose of radiation and increase in the last 3mm of the beam to the dose required for treatment.

The beam then stops, resulting in virtually no radiation to the tissue beyond the target- or no "exit dose" as it is called. This ability to spare healthy tissue is the main difference between x-rays and protons. Research has shown that the biologic effect, or the damage to exposed tissues, is essentially the same for both therapies.

This means the therapies will destroy tumor cells in eyelid twitching same manner, but protons should result in less toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues.

Proton therapy can be used to treat some types of brain tumors. Radiation therapy can also be given to a very focused area of the brain using a technique called stereotactic radio surgery. Stereotactic radiosurgery requires a patient to have a head frame attached so that a precise map can be made of the patient's head. Radiation is then focused from a variety of different angles to deliver a large radiation dose to the tumor or tumor bed.

This can be performed using the same machine that delivers external beam radiation or by a special machine called a gamma knife.

Your radiation oncologist can answer any questions you may have about treatment with radiation.

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