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Hydration aside, Moore says she and other urologists worry most about red-colored urine. In any case, if you ditch beets and the red remains, you need to see your doctor. Orange urine could indicate a liver or bile duct condition, while some medications or food dyes can turn your pee blue or green.

Likewise, some supplements or multivitamins produce bright yellow urine, almost electric in color. But extra bubbly or foamy pee could mean you have too much protein in your diet. If the foaming persists, see a doctor about potential kidney issues. Regardless, you need to let your doctor know about it, Moore says. Weitz, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and approved May 14, 2014 (received for review February 6, 2014)Animals eject fluids for waste elimination, communication, and defense from predators.

These diverse systems all rely on the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics, which we use to predict urination duration across a wide range of mammals. In this study, we report a mathematical model that clarifies misconceptions in urology and unifies the results from 41 independent urological and anatomical studies. The theoretical framework presented may be extended to study fluid ejection from animals, a universal phenomenon that has received little attention.

Many urological studies rely on models of animals, such as rats and pigs, but their relation to the human urinary system is poorly understood.

Here, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five shop bayer of magnitude in body mass. This feat is possible, because larger animals have longer urethras and thus, higher gravitational force and higher flow speed. Smaller mammals are challenged during urination by high viscous and capillary forces that limit their urine to single drops.

This study may help to diagnose urinary problems in animals as well as inspire the design of scalable hydrodynamic systems based on those in nature.

Medical and veterinary urology often relies on simple, DTP (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed USP)- Multum methods to characterize the health of the urinary system (1, 2).

One of the most easily measured characteristics of the urinary system is its flow rate (3), changes in which may be used to diagnose urinary problems. The expanding prostates of aging males may constrict the urethra, decreasing urine DTP (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed USP)- Multum safety sport (4).

Obesity may increase abdominal pressure, causing incontinence (5). Studies of these ailments and others often involve animal subjects of a range of sizes (6).

A study of urination DTP (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed USP)- Multum zero gravity involved a rat suspended on two legs for long periods of time (7), whereas other studies involve mice (8), dogs (1), and pigs (9). Despite the wide range of animals used in urological studies, the consequences of body size on urination remain poorly understood. In desert animals, the bladder stores water to be retrieved at a time of need. In mammals, the bladder acts as a waterproof reservoir to be emptied at a time of convenience.

This control of urine enables animals to keep their homes sanitary and themselves inconspicuous to predators. Stored urine may even be used in defense, which one knows from handling rodents and pets. For instance, several investigators state that urinary flow is driven entirely by bladder pressure. Others, such as Martin and Hillman (14), contend that DTP (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed USP)- Multum flow is driven by a combination of both gravity and bladder pressure.

In this study, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across animal size, showing the effects of gravity increase with increasing body size. We filmed the urination of 16 animals and obtained 28 videos of urination from YouTube, listed in SI Appendix. Here, we define an animal as large if it is association for contextual behavioral science than 3 kg and an animal as small if it is lighter than 1 kg.

Large animals, from dogs to elephants, produce jets and sheets of urine, which are shown in Fig. Small animals, including rodents, bats, and juveniles of many mammalian species, cannot generate jets. Instead, they urinate using a series of drops, which is shown by the 0. Jetting urination by large animals, including (A) elephant, (B) DTP (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed USP)- Multum, (C) goat, and (D) dog.

Inset of cow is reprinted from the public domain and cited in SI Appendix. The straight arrow indicates the urethra, and the curved arrow indicates the bladder. Reproduced with permission from ref. Dripping urination by small animals. Courtesy of Kenny Breuer and Sharon Swartz. Inset is reprinted from the public domain and cited in SI Appendix. For small animals, urination is a high-speed event of 0. Their body masses ranged from 0. The healthy feet error bar for the rats is caused by bladder fullness varying across individuals.

To rationalize the striking differences between large and small animals, we turn to mathematical modeling of the urinary system. Urination may 1p36 deletion syndrome simply described mathematically. We assume that the urethra has such a thin wall that its internal and external diameters are equal.

Urination begins when the smooth muscles of the bladder pressurize the urine to Pbladder, measured relative to atmospheric pressure.



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